Sometimes teeth become fractured by trauma, grinding or biting on hard objects. Additionally, fillings, crowns/bridges and other restorative devices can be damaged or fall out of the mouth completely. If there is pain, it is essential to make an appointment with the dentist as quickly as possible. The pain caused by dental emergencies can get worse without treatment, and dental issues can seriously jeopardize physical health.
Types of dental emergency and how to deal with them
Avulsed tooth (tooth knocked out)
If a tooth has been knocked clean out of the mouth, it is essential to see a dentist immediately. When a tooth exits the mouth, tissues, nerves and blood vessels become damaged. If the tooth can be placed back into its socket within an hour, there is a chance the tissues will grow to support the tooth once again.
Here are some steps to take:
Call the dentist.
Pick up the tooth by the crown and rinse it under warm water. DO NOT touch the root.
If possible, place it back into its socket – if not tuck it into the cheek pouch.
If the tooth cannot be placed in the mouth, put the tooth into a cup of milk, saliva, or water as a last resort. It is important to keep the tooth from drying out.
Get to the dentist, quickly and safely.
The dentist will try to replace the tooth in its natural socket. In some cases, the tooth will reattach, but if the inner mechanisms of the teeth are seriously damaged, root canal therapy may be necessary.
Lost filling or crown
Usually, a crown or filling comes loose while eating. Once it is out of the mouth, the affected tooth may be incredibly sensitive to temperature changes and pressure. Crowns generally become loose because the tooth beneath is decaying. The decay causes shape changes in the teeth – meaning that the crown no longer fits.
If a crown has come out of the mouth, make a dental appointment as soon as possible. Keep the crown in a cool, safe place because there is a possibility that the dentist can reinsert it. DO NOT use any kind of glue to affix the crown. The dentist will check the crown to see if it still fits. If it does, it will be reattached to the tooth. Where decay is noted, this will be treated and a new crown will be made. If the crown is out of the mouth for a long period of time, the teeth may shift or sustain further damage.
Cracked or broken teeth
The teeth are strong, but they are still prone to fractures, cracks and breaks. Sometimes fractures are fairly painless, but if the crack extends down into the root, it is likely that the pain will be extreme. Fractures, cracks and breaks can take several different forms, but are generally caused by trauma, grinding and biting. If a tooth has been fractured or cracked, there is no alternative but to see the dentist as quickly as possible.
Where a segment of tooth has been broken off, here are some steps that can be taken at home:
Call the dentist.
Rinse the tooth fragment and the mouth with lukewarm water.
Apply gauze to the area for ten minutes if there is bleeding.
Place a cold, damp dishtowel on the cheek to minimize swelling and pain.
The nature of the break or fracture will limit what the dentist is able to do. If a fracture or crack extends into the root, root canal therapy may be an effective way to retain the tooth. In some cases the extent of the fracture will render the tooth non-restorable.
When a tooth has been dislodged or loosened from its socket by trauma, it might be possible to save it if the tooth remains in the mouth and attached to the blood vessels and nerves.
It is important to call the dentist immediately to make an appointment. In the meantime, use a cold compress and over-the-counter medications to relieve pain. Maybe the dentist can reposition the tooth or add a splint to stabilize the displaced tooth/teeth. If the tooth can be saved, additional treatment such as root canal therapy may be required.